“We Have Lost the Vertical.”

“When you think of it, really there are four fundamental questions of life. You’ve asked them, I’ve asked them, every thinking person asks them. They boil down to this: origin, meaning, morality and destiny. ‘How did I come into being? What brings life meaning? How do I know right from wrong? Where am I headed after I die?'”—Ravi Zacharias.

Written by Steven Barto, B.S., Psy.

I AGREE WITH RAVI ZACHARIAS: There has been a drastic impact from man’s decision to look within for meaning, purpose, and morality. We have lost our vertical orientation toward God. The battle between theism and atheism is the oldest philosophical  debate known to man. The greatest battles over the course of history have been over control of the heart of mankind, which is the basic currency of politics and culture. Zacharias believes, “Right from the start the question was not the origin of species but the autonomy of the species” (1). We say No one is going to tell me what to believe! Our inner turmoil is rooted in the fact that we are a worshiping people, with an innate desire, an instinct and impulse hardwired into us, to seek and understand God. Yet we debate whether the concepts of origin, purpose, morality, and destiny should rest with us (relative to culture, history, circumstance) or with God based upon ontological truth.

“What has happened? The answer is clear. The discussion in the public square is now reduced to right or left, forgetting there is an up and a down.”—Ravi Zacharias

The remarkable harmony Adam and Eve enjoyed with God and the whole of creation, the peaceful dominion they were given over it, was broken the moment they decided to look within for meaning and purpose; for the definition of right and wrong. Chandler writes, “While the earth was once wonderfully subdued, it now yields grudgingly. Where it was once only fruitful and abundant, it now offers the challenge of thorns and thistles” (2). God’s very first commandment issued in the Garden—Do not eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil—does not mean God wants to subdue us and is unwilling to share His “knowledge” with us. To the contrary, He is aware of the insurmountable task of systematically evaluating right and wrong, good and evil, true and false, from a human perspective. We lack the ability to perceive and handle the thousands of nuances involved in determining ethics, justice, judgment, and equality. It’s so easy to become embroiled in arguments relative to these issues. Some of the most infamous broken relationships in history have been over arguments gone wrong.

Most biblical scholars  agree that God gave us free will. What they cannot agree on is how to best define the concept of free willexactly how it operates in our lives. Sadly, our desire to know and control things cost us dearly. Adam and Eve enjoyed a glorious relationship with God: walking with Him in the cool of the day. God provided our First Parents with the freedom to choose. I believe He wants us to choose Him rather than be forced to believe and obey. Accordingly, God said to Adam, “You may freely eat of every tree of the garden; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall die” (Gen. 2:16-17, NRSV) (emphasis mine).

Essentially, our First Parents staged a mutiny. A tug-of-war began between man and God at the very beginning. Chandler believes this cosmic argument with God has left a “shalom-shaped hole in our hearts, and no matter how much we throw in there, and no matter how long we try filling it, nothing will satisfy but shalom itself” (3)Zacharias believes the moment Adam and Eve chose to look within for purpose, meaning, and knowledge, mankind headed down the slippery slope of secularism, humanism, and moral relativism. Secular and humanistic worldviews say, “We don’t need God!” Moral relativism says, “That might be true for you, but it’s not true for me!” 

“Faith gives the understanding access to these things, unbelief closes the door upon them… A right faith is the beginning of a good life, and to this also eternal life is due. Now it is faith to believe that which you do not yet see; and the reward of this faith is to see that which you believe.”—Augustine of Hippo

The Enlightenment

Skepticism and doubt reign supreme in Western civilization today. When the Enlightenment emerged in Europe in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, emphasis was put on reason and individualism rather than doctrine and tradition. Leaders during this era ( Descartes, Locke, Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau) taught that reason was the power by which humans can understand the universe and improve their own condition. Enlightenment involved the use and celebration of reason, the power by which mankind attempts to understand the universe and improve the condition of man here on earth. Immanuel Kant sought truth through “pure reason.”

Enlightenment stressed both reason and independence, and elicited a pronounced distrust of authority. For the Enlightenment thinkers, the most important human attribute was rationality. This sounds like a fairly innocuous term: the quality of being based on or in accordance with reason or logic. The difference between man’s logic and God’s is this: Christian rationalism attempts to strengthen not only the physical body, but the spirit as well; enlightening human beings by means of the spirituality it defends. It focuses on spiritual evolution, without prejudices or dogmas. Specifically, the Christian rationalist believes Scripture is the foundation upon which all good reasoning is built. It is the only reliable foundation for all logic and good judgment; the only trustworthy basis for the beginning of thoughts, ideas, actions and practices. The Word of God is intended to be the mind’s bedrock, its compass. This is an a priori argument: relating to or denoting reasoning or knowledge which proceeds from theoretical deduction rather than from observation or experience. This is akin to saying we cannot trust what we see.

Brad Inwood said, “The Enlightenment devalues prejudices and customs, which owe their development to historical peculiarities rather than to the exercise of reason. What matters to the Enlightenment is not whether one is French or German, but that one is an individual man, united in brotherhood with all other men by the rationality one shares with them” (4). We can see in this statement that the authority of the church and of Scripture began to be questioned. A period of objective inquiry concerning the world and mankind ensued as a result of this philosophy. Of course, reading between the lines reveals an attitude that subjective inquiry (no matter the subject matter it pursues) is “illogical.” Inwood added, “Beliefs are to be accepted only on the basis of reason, not on the authority of priests, sacred texts, or tradition.” Alas, this was the Age of Reason.

To its credit, Enlightenment believes in some immutable Truth waiting to be discovered by experience, unbiased reason, or the methods of science. The downside of this worldview is its tendency to define such ontological truth through human reason, or on empirical evidence alone. Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality. It is part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics. Skeptics of this school of thought believe that “truth” is always relative to cultural, group, or personal perspectives. This is essentially known as moral relativism. Further to this is the concept that we interpret our experienced reality through a pair of conceptual glasses—situation, personal goals, past experiences, values, the body of knowledge we possess, the nature of language, the zeitgeist, and so forth.

Theological determinism is a form of predestination which states that all events that happen are preordained or predestined to happen, typically by a divine will. Some call this “destiny.” Friedrich Nietzsche was against determinism. He said, “Every man is a unique miracle; we are responsible to ourselves for our own existence. Freedom makes us responsible for our characters just as artists are responsible for their creations.” Nietzsche and other Enlightenment thinkers believed if man lives according to the morals or the will of a divine being, then he is a slave. They believed everyone who wishes to be free must become free through his or her own endeavor. In other words, freedom does not fall into anyone’s lap as a miraculous gift.

The Most Important Question

Rationalism, empiricism, agnosticism, idealism, positivism, existentialism, and phenomenology are all part of the discipline of epistemology: the study of how we know. It is certainly helpful to ask “how,” but it is the why that contains the basis for existence. Why are we here in the first place? While science is equipped to answer the how of life, it is not qualified to answer the why. Zacharias believes the points of tension within secular worldviews are not merely peripheral. They are systemic; they are foundational. For example, for the atheist, sorrow is central and joy peripheral, while for the follower of Jesus, joy is central and sorrow peripheral. There is an intellectual side to life, but there is also a side where deep needs are experienced. Sorrow often occurs when we fail to understand why things are happening to us.

More consequences for life and action follow from the affirmation or denial of God than from any other basic question.—Mortimer Adler

I am most impressed by how succinctly Ravi Zacharias expresses the four fundamental questions of life: Where did I come from? Why am I here? How should I live? Where am I going? These questions fall into four basic categories: origin, meaning, morality, destiny. Regardless of our worldview, each of us longs to answer these fundamental queries. Moreover, how we answer them has a direct impact on our actions! For instance, relativism says, “That might be true for you, but not for me.” Whatever is of significance is reduced to value according to the preferences and biases of this or that person, culture, or point in history. This is actually an offshoot of naturalism. If nature is all there is, then there can be no transcendent or absolute source of moral truth, and we are left to construct our own morality. By definition, morality would be contingent upon the person, situation, or moment in time. Obviously, this makes for a rather murky and ambiguous existence!

According to Thomas Hobbes’s concept of empiricism, “mind” is nothing more than the sum total of a person’s thinking activities. Chemical signals received in the dendrites from the axons that contact them are transformed into electrical signals, which add to or subtract from electrical signals from all the other synapses, thus making a decision about whether to pass on the signal elsewhere. Electrical potentials then travel down axons to synapses on the dendrites of the next neuron and the process repeats. Based on this basic neuroscience, Hobbes denied the existence of a “non-material” mind. Accordingly, he concluded there are no objective moral properties or concepts. Instead, there is only what seems good and pleasing for the individual.

Thinking “Christianly”

Nancy Pearcey introduces the concept of thinking Christianly in her book Total Truth. She addresses this idea under the heading “Divided Minds,” indicating that many Christians today are dual-minded, caught up in the fact/value, public/private dichotomy, restricting their faith to the so-called “religious sphere” while adopting whatever secular views they’re exposed to in their daily lives. Harry Blamires, in his seminal book The Christian Mind, makes a very troubling and profound statement: 

There is no longer a Christian mind!

What does that mean? Blamires believes Christians often lack a proper biblical worldview. Certainly, as spiritual beings most Christians continue to follow a biblical ethic of prayer and worship, studying Scripture, and sharing the gospel with others. But as a thinking being, the modern Christian has fallen prey to secularism. I realize that sounds strange, but it is no less true. Unfortunately, many believers tend to hold a secular point of view in everyday matters. They get sucked into conversations laden with secular or scientific principals and participate mentally as if they are not Christians, espousing concepts and categories typically held by non-believers. Ravi Zacharias says, “Christianity is a belief grounded in freedom. It is also, and here is where it contrasts most sharply with humanism, a belief in an absolute” (3). Secularism and humanism are tied to a relativist viewpoint regarding truth and morality—all value is reduced to value according to the preferences, biases, and circumstances of a particular person, culture, or age.

According to Pearcey, “Thinking Christianly means understanding that Christianity gives the truth about the whole of reality; a perspective for interpreting every subject matter.” Augustine of Hippo said, “Moral character is assessed not by what a man knows but by what he loves.” This puts a new perspective on these words spoken by Jesus: “If you love me, you will keep my commandments” (John 14:15, NRSV). Paul said, “It is the Spirit himself bearing witness with our spirit that we are children of God, and if children, then heirs, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, provided we suffer with him in order that we may also be glorified with him” (Rom. 8:16-17). Christians like to focus on the latter part of verse 17—the promise of glory. Spiritual growth demands that we do not jump ahead. Growth requires baby steps; increments of progress. Just like academic programs in college, there are prerequisites for each level.

Our sanctification as Christians begins by suffering and dying with Christ. Paul said, “I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me; and the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me” (Gal. 2:20). There is a specific order to our sanctification: we must first die to this world in order to live with Christ in His resurrection. It is only through dying to self that we can live through Christ. This is how we are able to live our theology and not just learn it. Martin Luther said, “It is through living, indeed through dying, and being damned, that one becomes a theologian, not through understanding, reading, or speculation.” Pearcey believes it is nearly impossible for non-believers to  accept Christianity solely in the abstract. As believers, we know what the gospel looks like when lived out in practice. Hart says theology, far from being esoteric and inaccessible, must be rooted in basic elements of human existence (4).

True theology must be a lived theology or it is merely a collection of information. Close study of the Pauline epistles reveals a subtle movement from the indicative to the imperative; from theological theories to practical applications. This is at the core of Paul’s remark, “For me to live is Christ and to die is gain” (Phil. 1:21). It is only through Scripture that we learn how sin corrupts our very interpretation of reality. John Henry Newman draws a very smart conclusion in this regard: “Christianity is dogmatical, devotional, practical all at once; it is esoteric and exoteric; it is indulgent and strict; it is light and dark; it is love, and it is fear.” Kevin Vanhoozer believes as Christians we must learn doctrine in order to participate more deeply, passionately, and truthfully in the drama of redemption. Intellectual apprehension alone, without the appropriation of heart and hand, leads only to hypocrisy.

Concluding Remarks

I think one of the most profound statements contained in Scripture is “Pride goes before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall” (Prov. 16:18). Eugene Peterson puts it this way: “First pride, then the crash—the bigger the ego, the harder the fall” (MSG). There are fewer powerful hindrances to spiritual growth than pride and self-sufficiency. The hardest lesson I learned during four decades of active addiction was thinking I was unique; smarter than the average bear. Every time I tried to manage my addiction, it kicked me to the gutter. Not only did I end up getting drunk or high, I betrayed the very tenet of Christianity: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength… [and] you shall love your neighbor as yourself. There is no other commandment greater than these” (Mark 12:30-31, NRSV).

It is pride that led to disobedience in the Garden. Adam and Eve decided to look to themselves for meaning, purpose, and morality rather than to God. This is when man lost his vertical orientation and chose to define good and evil from a secular or humanist perspective. The result has been constant posturing and arguing over ethics, justice, judgment, and equality. To the secularist, morality is contingent upon circumstance. However, Scripture is the only reliable foundation upon which all good reasoning is built. It is the basis for logic and good judgment; the only trustworthy basis for the beginning of thoughts, ideas, actions and practices. Scripture is intended to be the bedrock of existence; mankind’s compass. Christianity provides the truth about the whole of reality; a perspective for interpreting every subject and every situation. We can only become grounded in truth by thinking with the mind of Christ. This is what Nancy Pearcey means by thinking Christianly.

Footnotes

(1) Ravi Zacharias, Jesus Among Secular Gods (New York, NY: Hachette Book Group, 2017), 15.

(2) Matt Chandler, The Explicit Gospel (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012), 112.

(3) Zacharias, 162.

(4) Trevor Hart, Faith Thinking: The Dynamics of Christian Theology (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 1995), 79.

 

 

Let’s Go To Theology Class: The Thirty Years War

The following summary is from my most recent class in pursuit of my master’s degree in theology at Colorado Christian University.

The Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) was the last of the European religious wars and one of Europe’s bloodiest conflicts. Due to casualties, disease, and all other horrors of war, the population of the Holy Roman Empire dropped by 7.5 million during that period. To appreciate the religious significance of the war, discuss both the beginning and ending of the conflict.

Specifically, answer these questions:

  • What were the contributions to the war effort made by Lutherans, Calvinists, and Roman Catholics (address all three groups)?
  • What were the results of the war for Lutherans, Calvinists, and Roman Catholics (again, all three groups)?
  • Who would you say won the war?

How it Began

The impetus for the Thirty Years War was the Holy Roman Emperor’s attempts to reestablish Catholic hegemony over Protestant regions. The teaching style of seventeenth and eighteenth theologians began to morph into something that was no longer based entirely on Scripture. Justo L. Gonzalez believes the approach of many church leaders became increasingly rigid, cold, and academic. No doubt this militant and dogmatic style provided a momentum during the period leading up to the Thirty Years War that was nearly impossible to stop. Gonzalez notes, “Dogma was often substituted for faith, and orthodoxy for love”(1).

Prior to the War, the Peace of Nuremberg (1532) permitted Protestants to practice their faith but prohibited spreading Protestantism. Gonzalez says, “The Peace of Augsburg, which put an end to religious wars in Germany in the sixteenth century, could not last”(2). This was true in part because freedom of religion was granted only to the rulers. Further, regions ruled by bishops often remained Catholic even if their bishops became Protestant (3).

Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Calvinism each vied for dominance in Europe. Rebellion spread quickly. Charles V (for Catholicism) and Frederick the Wise (for Protestantism) saw “[N]o higher interest than the cause of God’s truth as they saw it, and subordinated their political and personal ambitions to that cause” (4) (italics mine). Gonzalez: “[T]he peace achieved at Augsburg was at best an armistice that would hold only as long as each side felt unable to take military action against the other” (5).

The Lutherans

The war began in Bohemia after the Defenestration of Prague. Much had been happening on the fringes regarding Protestantism. Skirmishes did little to settle the matter of “official” religious beliefs in the nation-states. Books on Protestantism began to circulate following invention of the printing press. Martin Luther’s Reformation caused a division among German princes within the Holy Roman Empire. Moreover, these rulers began using religion to further their political ambition. Lutherans objected violently when Ferdinand closed one Protestant church and destroyed another. Many historians claim the Thirty Years War cost the lives of nearly half of Germany’s population. No doubt true believers were growing wary of Catholic orthodoxy.

Bohemian Protestants waged was against Ferdinand, but they were defeated. Ferdinand reasserted his control over Bohemia and was also named emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Gonzalez indicates that Catholics, Lutherans, Reformed, and Anglicans assumed that a nation-state must have a single religion to which all its subjects must adhere. Not only is this idea a factor in the Thirty Years War, it is an impetus for eventual colonization of America in the name of freedom from this very situation. According to Gonzalez, Philip of Hesse took the duchy of Wurttemberg for himself. The population of the duchy swung toward Protestantism. Gonzalez also reminds us that peace in Europe was only attained by deciding that some states would be Lutheran and some Catholic: This is the application of the concept cuju regis eius religio (“whose realm, his religion”). Lutheranism was born out of Martin Luther’s push for reform in the Roman Catholic Church. A precursor to the War was failure of the Inquistion to quell what Gonzalez calls the “Lutheran contagion.” Luther would not back down, even in the face of official opposition from the papacy.

The Calvinists

According to Tom Richey, “Calvinism, which was not established as a legal religion in the Empire by the Peace of Augsburg, spread throughout the Empire despite its prohibition, as Calvinists did not care whether their religion was legal or not. The spread of Calvinism threatened the tranquility of the Empire, as did places like Bohemia, where the ruler’s religion was different from most of the population” (6).

Gonzalez remarks that medieval foundations (the empire, the papacy, and tradition) were weakening. Calvinism, which was not established as a legal religion in the Empire by the Peace of Augsburg, spread throughout the Empire despite being prohibited. Calvinists didn’t care whether their religion was legal or not. As Calvinism continued to spread, it threatened the tranquility of the Empire. Social and political unrest was rapidly becoming the norm. Luther and Calvin were determined to see the church return to the Word of God, thereby reforming Catholicism. Calvin discovered the freedom of justification through the unmerited grace of God, which resulted in his hallmark doctrine of predestination. Gonzalez relates Poland’s distrust and disdain for the Germans, causing Lutheranism there to grow at a snail’s pace. He wrote, “It was when Calvinism made its way into the country that Protestantism began making headway” (7). Anti-Trinitarian heresies took root there. This may well have led to Poland becoming one of the most Catholic nation-states in Europe (see Gonzalez, 160).

The Roman Catholics

The Holy Roman Empire was a fragmented collection of largely independent states. The Reformation caused division between Catholic and Protestant rule. The origins of the conflict and goals of the participants were complex. Initially, the war was fought largely as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire. Mary Tudor and other notable nobles were committed to restoring Roman Catholicism in England. She became known as “Bloody Mary” because of her increasingly repressive and violent acts against Protestants. Gonzalez notes England’s official return to obedience to the pope in late 1554—Protestants were now persecuted as a matter of policy.

St. Ignatius of Loyola emerged as the new face of Catholic “reformation.” In 1540, as a response to burgeoning Protestantism, the Society of Jesus (the “Jesuits”) came to be quite a force for defeating the Protestants. The papacy put their resources to task. These early Jesuits operated under a quasi-military structure. Also, “[F]or generations the tendency within Roman Catholicism had been toward greater centralization in Rome, after the model of a monarchical government” (8). Protestantism was not similarly organized.

How it Ended

The Peace of Westphalia (comprised of a series of “cease-fire” treaties) recognized sovereign equality—the balance of power and non-intervention in affairs of the nation-states—established a variety of political kingdoms in Europe. Several earlier events caused the War to start slowing down—e.g., the Peace of Prague signed in 1634 ended Saxony’s participation. The Spain’s military fizzled out in 1640. Tom Richey said Westphalia set a “normative” state—a standard applicable to all territories—which fixed the control of churches, the right to public worship, and the so-called “confessional status” of each territory to the state it had been in as of January 1, 1624. Richey wrote, “By establishing a standard applicable to all, it also represented a convenient means of avoiding the conflicts of honour [sic] inherent in early-modern negotiations in which princes were asked to make concessions” (9). The Peace of Westphalia established an order of conditional sovereignty.

Catholic France and Protestant England emerged as the two most powerful European states. The rulers of the European nation-states could now choose their official religions. Catholics and Protestants were now decidedly equal under the law. Also, Calvinism lost its heretical or dogmatic stigma and was given legal recognition. The Thirty Years War came to an end in 1648. Obviously, both sides suffered greatly, seeming to have exhausted their military personnel and armaments. Spain began to collapse during the Thirty Years War, which seems to have continued after the Peace of Westphalia. Catholicism in France faired well as a result of War, but to no true detriment to Protestantism there. This was no small feat, and it involved France conscientiously rising above religious bigotry and hatred. In this regard, although Catholicism did not vanish in France, the Protestants were able to establish a strong religious presence as well. Yet I feel Protestantism won the day. They rose above what could have been total annihilation. Then again, the gospel has progressed over the centuries in exactly the manner God determined.


(1) Justo Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, Vol. II (New York: HarperOne, 2010), Gonzalez, 174.

(2) 177.

(3) 177.

(4) 173.

(5) 177.

(6) Tom Richey, “The Thirty Years War (AP Euro Lecture Notes),” The Blog @ Tom Richey.net (09/26/2016), URL: https://www.tomrichey.net/blog/the-thirty-years-war-ap-euro-lecture-notes

(7) Gonzalez, 159.

(8) 453.

(9) Tom Richey, “The Thirty Years War (AP Euro Lecture Notes),” The Blog @ Tom Richey.net

Romans 8:28

“We know that in everything God works for good with those who love him, who are called according to his purpose” (Rom. 8:28, NRSV).

Written by Steven Barto, B.S. Psy.

WE CANNOT UNDERTAKE ANALYSIS of a Scripture passage without saying something about exegesis.  This process amounts to careful historical, literary, and theological analysis of a text. Exegesis has been called by some as scholarly reading, which means reading in a way that determines the essence of the text through the most complete, systematic notation possible, examining the phenomena of the text and grappling with the reasons that speak for or against a specific understanding of it. Another appropriate description of exegesis is “close reading,” a term borrowed from literature. Close reading means the deliberate, word-by-word or phrase-by-phrase consideration of all parts of a text in order to understand it as a whole.

I find several biblical commentaries to be helpful in unpacking the exegetical meaning of Scripture. In particular, I speak highly of Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, edited by Tremper  Longman and David E. Garland,  and Zondervan Bible Commentary, edited by F.F. Bruce. I also frequently use The New Oxford Annotated Bible (NRSV), and The Interlinear NIV Parallel New Testament in Greek and English, translated by Alfred Marshall. I often refer to the Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, edited by Daniel J. Treier and Walter Elwell. Reference texts like these can be quite useful when examining a passage of Scripture.

Exposition

Paul introduces yet another benefit of life in the Spirit. He writes, “We know that all things work together for good for those who love God, who are called according to his purpose” (Rom. 8:28, NRSV). Some of the ancient authorities read, God makes all things work together for good, or in all things God works for good. Matthew Henry writes, “That is good for the saints which does their souls good. Every providence tends to the spiritual good of those that love God” (1). Henry believes this passage means God uses all circumstances to aid in breaking us off from sin, bringing us nearer to Him, weaning us from the world. He adds, “When the saints act out of character, corrections will be employed to bring them back again” (2). Romans 8:28 brings comfort, direction, and hope to Christians every day. 

This verse contains a promise for believers. Paul is telling us that those of us who love God and are doing our best to obey his commands will come out on top even when bad or wicking things touch our lives. God will always use whatever happens to His chosen to ultimately bring about good. There is obviously nothing good about cancer, sex trafficking, addiction, or death. Such evils exist in the world, and will remain so until Jesus returns to conquer Satan and restore creation to its intended purpose. Romans 8:28 serves to remind us that although sin and Satan are powerful forces on earth , God is more powerful. He is able to redeem and restore any situation, and He will continue to do so until Christ returns in all His glory.

It is not likely Paul literally meant “all things.” This would be rather general, including any and all situations anywhere and everywhere on earth no matter who is involved or affected. He is instead referring specifically to those things that are generally considered adverse and are turned around and used for good; i.e., for accomplishing God’s will for those who love Him and are called according to His purpose. This fits nicely with Romans 5:3-5: “More than that, we rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, and endurance produces character, and character produces hope, and hope does not disappoint us, because God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us.” Indeed, no matter what we face God is there, working all things out in such a manner that it will ultimately bring about His will for us.

Certainly, we don’t like to fall victim to adverse circumstances. We want God to rescue us from bad situations. Why should a pastor and his family die in a head-on car crash with a drunk driver? Why did Nabeel Qureshi, after converting from Islam to Christianity and joining Ravi Zacharias in a global effort of evangelism and apologetics, die of stomach cancer? Why are churches wiped off the face of the earth by tornadoes? Perhaps the answer is hidden in a remark a Christian said to me nearly two years ago when I was still struggling in active addiction and facing some serious challenges. He said, “God wants you to know that everything you’ve gone through from the time of your birth to this moment right now was ordained by Him to help make you into the man He needs you to be in order to fulfill His purpose.” Whoa! That’s pretty heavy.

Romans 8:29 says, “For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might be the first-born among many brethren.” This is a companion verse to the promise in verse 28. God allows everything into our lives for one of two purposes—either to bring us into a relationship with Himself or, if we already know Him, to make us more like Jesus Christ.

Some biblical scholars consider Romans 8:28-29 the “the golden chain of salvation.” It is important to read Romans 8 to the end. Paul says, “If God is for us, who can be against us?” God did not spare His only Son; rather, He sent Christ to be a propitiation for our sins. Jesus paid the wages of sin and destroyed Satan’s authority over the believer. Paul said, “Who shall bring any charge against God’s elect? It is God who justifies; who is to condemn? Is it Christ Jesus, who died, yes, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who indeed intercedes for us?” This verse can be interpreted as saying, Shall Christ who has died so that we might live thereafter condemn us? Or, by inference, does Jesus bring about calamity in our lives? Does He put a snare before us that prevents our circumstances from turning out for good in the end? No! Instead, Jesus is constantly interceding on our behalf before the Father (8:34).

The Hidden Will of God

The hidden will of God (His decretive will) includes all He has ordained through every event in history, including the thoughts and hidden intentions of every person. It is critical to realize that, although God works out everything according to the counsel of His sovereign will (see Eph. 1:11), not everything God ordains in His hidden will is pleasing to Him. God’s decretive will is defined as the sovereign, efficacious will by which He brings to pass whatever He pleases by His divine decree. God’s decretive will can have no other effect or consequence than what He commands. He did not request the light to shine in the universe. Neither did He coax, cajole, or woo it into existence. It was a matter of His absolute authority and power through decree. No creature, including man, enjoys this power of will.

As finite beings, we cannot know  or comprehend the hidden will of God. We can only look back in history and know only part of what God’s hidden will was for any particular situation. God’s decretive will always come to pass. Whatever happens has been ordained by God to bring about His sovereign will. As Christians, we are not permitted to know (nor should we seek to know) the hidden will of God. Instead, we must live by what has been revealed in Scripture, trusting that regardless of the circumstances God will bring about good. Rather than causing anxiety about what will happen, we need to take comfort in Paul’s words. Because Christ intercedes on our behalf in every instance, we can enjoy true shalom. God protects us from annihilation no matter what happens in our daily lives (Phil. 4:6-8).

Believers can also rest in the knowledge that God is and will always be as He has revealed Himself in His Word. He is unchanging (Heb. 13:5-6). Christ alone is sufficient for meeting our every need (Phil. 4:13). He is our Rock of Refuge (Psa. 18:2); our very present helper in time of need (Psa. 46:1). God’s hidden will is never meant to be punitive; rather, it testifies to His infinite goodness, mercy, and grace. We can rest in the knowledge that God’s communicable attributes—wisdom, goodness, love, mercy, holiness, righteousness, and justice—are at the root of His will for us and his love for all mankind. God always exercises His power according to His wisdom and knowledge. He sees all time at the same time, allowing Him to know what happened, what is happening now, and what will happen in the future all at once! His wisdom and knowledge are inseparable from His goodness, love, and mercy. He is good toward all He has made. His attributes are identical with His essence.

Martin Luther expounded upon Romans 8:28 in his Commentary on Romans. He wrote, “We must not be surprised that the Holy Spirit intercedes for us, since He works together with God’s saints in all they do… He works together with us all things” (3). Luther remarked that God makes all things work for good even though they are evil (in themselves, e.g., sickness, persecution, etc.). There is an underlying suggestion in this Scripture passage that such predestination for good does not apply to those who walk in the wisdom of the flesh and are not called according to the purpose of God. Luther notes that Paul’s use of purpose in Romans 8 means God’s predestination, or His free election, to use whatever happens to further His will.

Regarding Predestination in Romans 8:29

It is critical that we understand the scope of predestination as it is used in this passage. There is much debate between the early Reformers as to whether God chooses to save “only a certain person or persons,” thereby condemning all others to damnation. I believe God preordained the redemptive plan, not who will live and who will die. In any event, “predestination” in Romans 8:29 has a broader scope than identifying those who will receive salvation. The backdrop is “adoption.” It refers to our sharing in the suffering of Christ, and our ongoing sanctification. As we shared in His suffering and death, so also shall we share in His resurrection and new life. As children of the Father, and brothers and sisters of the Son, we enjoy the benefit of God’s will working through whatever circumstance we might face.

Accordingly, Paul assures us that we are more than conquerors through Christ who strengthens us. Therefore, neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, nor height, nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord (8:38-39). God works everything God for good for those who love him, and who are called according to his purpose. Praise God!

(1) Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible (Nahsville: Thomas Nelson, 1997), 1080.

(2) Henry, 1080.

(3) Martin Luther, Commentary on Romans, J. Theodore Mueller, editor (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1954).

 

Sixty-Eight Percent!

“Brethren, if a man is overtaken in any trespass, you who are spiritual should restore him in a spirit of gentleness. Look to yourself, lest you too be tempted. Bear one another’s burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ” (Gal. 6:1-2, NRSV).

Written by Steven Barto B.S., Psy.

IF I WERE TO TELL you there is a malady affecting sixty-eight percent of Christian men, would you not want to hear about it? Further, would you be concerned that this issue prevents Christians from being filled with the Holy Spirit? Without a Spirit-filled life, a Christian cannot flow in the peace and power of God; only the Holy Spirit can produce the fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22-23). Essentially, the Holy Spirit is a flowing spring of pure, satisfying, and refreshing spiritual water. Impure thoughts and images cause this vital living water to be contaminated. Our thought life largely determines the kind of spiritual water flowing within our soul at any given moment.

68% of men and 30% of women who consider themselves Christian view pornography on a consistent basis!

Terry Cu-unjieng of Conquer Series says a national survey among churches conducted over the past five years revealed that 68 percent of Christian men and 50 percent of pastors view pornography regularly. Worse, boys age 11 to 17 reported being its greatest users (1). Morgan Lee of Christianity Today (2) says most pastors have struggled with pornography. A study including 432 pastors and 338 youth pastors commissioned by Josh McDowell’s Ministry and by Campus Crusade for Christ at the April 2016 Set Free summit reported that pastors (57%) and youth pastors (64%) admit they have struggled with porn, either currently or in the past. Overall, 21 percent of youth pastors and 14 percent of pastors admit they currently struggle with using porn. More than 1 in 10 youth pastors (12%) and 1 in 20 pastors (5%) said they’re addicted (Barna report.).

Steve Arterburn (3) believes porn is the greatest threat facing Christians today. He lists the following four reasons why:

  • Porn always gets worse. When a person gets involved in pornography, they are more likely to move into a genre they used to think was detestable or perverse.
  • Porn prevents sanctification. When a person is addicted to pornography, they have lost the desire to be sanctified.
  • Porn kills intimacy. Pornography destroys intimacy with God and one’s spouse.
  • Porn causes impotency. ED drugs are flourishing because of porn.

What’s Going On?

David Kinnaman spoke recently regarding pornography among teens. When they talk about pornography with friends, 89 percent of teens, and 95 percent of young adults say they do so in a neutral, accepting, or encouraging way. Accordingly, only 1 in 20 young adults and 1 in 10 teens say their friends think viewing pornography is a bad thing. Seventy-one percent of adults and 85 percent of teens and young adults who have viewed pornography did so using online videos. Magazines, graphic novels, on-demand videos and cable or rented/purchased DVDs are a very small part of the “market.” More than half of women age 25 and younger seek out porn (56% versus 27% among women 25-plus) and one-third seek it out at least monthly (33% versus just 12% among older men) (4).

The Christian church is in the sexual battle of its life. More than half of youth pastors have had at least one teen come to them for help in dealing with porn in the past 12 months. Ninety-three percent of pastors and 94 percent of youth pastors say it is a much bigger or somewhat bigger problem than it was in the past. At this rate, as young Christians become adults, the Church will be flooded with porn addicts. Pastor James Reeves of City On A Hill Church DFW has successfully tackled porn addiction in his church. He warns, “This problem is going to sweep through the Church like a tsunami wave of destruction and we’re not prepared for it.”

Donna Rice Hughes (5) says, “The continuous invasion of graphic, hard–core online pornography into cultures worldwide has been called the “largest unregulated social experiment in human history” and represents a hidden public health hazard we should not ignore” (6). Witherspoon Institute, in its release of “The Social Costs of Pornography: A Statement of Findings and Recommendations,” (a multifaceted, multidisciplinary, scholarly review) said pornography, especially via the Internet, harms men, women, and children, and fuels pornography addiction. Chronic viewing of pornography causes the breakdown of marriage and exacerbates sex trafficking. Other peer–reviewed studies have reached similar conclusions.

Remarkably, for over twenty years children have been spoon–fed a steady diet of hard–core pornography online, with little or no barriers to tens of thousands of websites. Any child with Internet access is just a click away from viewing, either intentionally or accidentally, sexually exploitative material. These images range from typical adult pornography to obscene fetishes depicting graphic sex acts, live sex shows, orgies, excretory functions, bestiality, and violence. Hughes writes, “The impact of Internet pornography on adolescents, including compulsive, addictive, and even criminal behavior, is a global trend not isolated to any particular culture or region” (7). Pornography has become one of the greatest global threats to children, marriages, families, and nations. It’s no secret that porn has become mainstream entertainment in our society.

Here are some key facts about online pornography that must be taken seriously (8):

  • Teenage girls are significantly more likely to actively seek out porn than women 25 years old and above.
  • A study of 14- to 19-year-olds found that females who consumed pornographic videos were at a significantly greater likelihood of being victims of sexual harassment or sexual assault.
  • A 2015 meta-analysis of 22 studies from seven countries found that internationally the consumption of pornography was significantly associated with increases in verbal and physical aggression, among males and females alike.
  • A recent UK survey found that 44 percent of males age 11 to 16 who consumed pornography reported that online pornography gave them ideas about the type of sex they wanted to try.
  • Porn sites receive more regular traffic than Netflix, Amazon, & Twitter combined each month
  • 35 percent of all internet downloads are porn-related.
  • 34 percent of internet users have been exposed to unwanted porn from ads, pop-ups. etc.
  • The teen porn category has topped porn site searches for the last six years.
  • At least 30 percent of all data transferred across the Internet is porn-related.
  • The most common female role stated in porn titles is that of women in their 20’s portraying teenagers.
  • Recorded child sexual exploitation (known as “child porn”) is one of the fastest-growing online businesses.
  • More than 624,000 child porn traders have been discovered online in the U.S.
  • Porn is estimated to be a $97 billion global industry, with about $12 billion of that coming from the U.S.
  • In 2018 alone, more than 5 billion 500 million hours of porn were consumed on the world’s largest porn site.
  • Eleven pornography sites are among the world’s top 300 most popular Internet sites. The most popular porn site outranks the likes of eBay, MSN, and Netflix.
  • “Lesbian” was the most-searched-for Internet porn in 2018.
  • The world’s largest free porn site received over 33 billion site visits during 2018.

Overcoming Sexual Strongholds

David, a man after God’s heart, fell to lust and adultery. Some Bible translations refer to this section of Scripture as “Bathsheba, David’s Greatest Sin” (2 Sam. 11). After viewing Bathsheba sunbathing on an adjacent rooftop, David was unable to cool his desire. Lust and sexual sin invariably lead to destruction. In David’s situation, he slept with Bathsheba, who was married to Uriah the Hittite, one of David’s foot soldiers. Bathsheba conceived a child out of this adulterous affair. Uriah returned from battle. David was quite obsessed with Bathsheba, and she was carrying his child. He sent Uriah back to the front lines, instructing Joab to take Uriah to the forefront of the fighting and abandon him that he might die in battle. A messenger returned to David saying, “Then the archers shot arrows at your servants from the wall, and some of the king’s men died. Moreover, your servant Uriah the Hittite is dead” (2 Sam. 11:24).

Satan’s attacks regarding sexuality have become so outright and blatant that even the Christian church has become desensitized to it. Pastors are failing to address the matter from the pulpit. These heinous acts are being condoned in nearly every church in America. We hear utterances like, “At least I sleep only with my boyfriend,” or “I may not get to order the dish, but there’s no harm in checking out the menu!” This certainly flies in the face of Jesus’ teaching: “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’ But I say to you that every one who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart” (Matt. 5:27, NRSV).

Ruth Moore writes, “Satan has done a masterful job of shaming those who are caught in sexual strongholds into a continuous cycle of defeat” (9). The devil cannot take our salvation from us, but he does everything he can to steal, kill, and destroy our character, testimony, and effectiveness. One of the more egregious results of habitual sin is internal guilt and shame. Whenever a believer is tethered to immorality, he or she begins to doubt their salvation—their standing as a believer, clothed in the righteousness of Christ. The resulting downward spiral leads to establishment of a stronghold. Paul describes strongholds in 2 Corinthians 10:5: “We demolish arguments and every pretension that sets itself up against the knowledge of God, and we take captive every thought to make it obedient to Christ.”

Moore says, “A stronghold is anything that exalts itself in our minds, ‘pretending’ to be bigger or more powerful than our God. It steals much of our focus and causes us to feel overpowered. Controlled. Mastered” (10). Whether the stronghold is addiction, unforgiveness, fear, chronic lying, or deep despair over a tragic loss, it is something that consumes so much of our emotions and mental activity that we are cut off from the abundant life we’ve been promised through Jesus Christ. Indeed, pornography is one of the greatest strongholds experienced by Christians today.

An Addiction Like Every Other

Addiction to pornography is real. I know because I’ve been there. Repeated consumption of pornography causes the brain to literally rewire itself. It triggers the brain to pump out chemicals (serotonin, dopamine, endorphins, oxytocin), forming new nerve pathways, and leading to profound and lasting changes in the brain. Pornography triggers brain activity in people with compulsive sexual behavior—known commonly as sex addiction—similar to that triggered by drugs in the brains of drug addicts. Studies have shown that porn stimulates the same areas of the brain as addictive drugs, making the brain release the same chemicals. Like drugs, porn triggers pathways in the brain that cause craving, leading users back for more and more extreme “hits” to get high.

There is something deep inside the brain called our reward center. Even the family dog has one. For mammals, it comes as “standard equipment.” The reward center releases pleasure chemicals into our brains whenever we do something positive or healthy, like eating tasty food, doing a hard workout, or enjoying a kiss. The spike of euphoria resulting from this activity feels like a high (a chemical rush) that makes us want to repeat the behavior over and over. Our reward center aids in hard wiring our brains, motivating us to do things that will improve our physical and mental health, leading to an increased chance of survival.

Unfortunately, our brains can be tricked. I have experienced euphoric, pain-free, relaxed sensations through watching pornographic images. During times of severe physical pain, anxiety, or insomnia, I have used porn like a drug, which tends to set pathways in my brain that create addictive behavior. A growing number of sexual images surround us every day in America. Not only is sex used to sell many products, it has become a pervasive commodity in its own right. Countless websites sell sex toys and pornographic images and movies. Today’s teens rate the media as one of their leading sources of sex information (Strasburger, et al., 2010).  

“According to Dr. Victor Cline, a nationally renowned clinical psychologist who specializes in sexual addiction, pornography addiction is a process that undergoes four phases. First, addiction, resulting from early and repeated exposure accompanied by masturbation. Second, escalation, during which the addict requires more frequent porn exposure to achieve the same “highs” and may learn to prefer porn to sexual intercourse. Third, desensitization, during which the addict views as normal what was once considered repulsive or immoral. And finally, the acting-out phase, during which the addict runs an increased risk of making the leap from screen to real life.”

The True Nature of Repentance

As Christians, we already understand that faith and repentance are twin doctrines that cannot be separated. We must believe in Christ penitently. If we repent of habitual sin, we must do so with the intent to do a 180 and change our behavior. We cannot accept the saving grace of God through the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus and continue in our old, sinful lifestyle. John Calvin defined repentance as, “The true turning of our life to God, a turning that arises from a pure and earnest fear of Him; and it consists in the mortification of our flesh and of the old man, and in the vivification of the Spirit” (11).

Repentance operates within the realm of several key elements. We must have a sense of shame, which leads to a genuine desire to give up habitual, sinful behavior. This should lead to humbling. It is imperative that we avoid attempting to break free from sin under our own power, or thinking we’re “getting it” better than others. Thusly humbled, sorrow and regret should fill our hearts. We must grieve and mourn over our offense, regretting all it has cost us and others. It is critical that our repentance lead to a distaste of sin for what it is. We must cry out as David did: “For I know my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me. Against thee, and thee only, have I sinned, and done that which is evil in thy sight, so that thou art justified in thy sentence and blameless in thy judgment” (Psa. 51:3-4).

We must also fully recognize the pardon of God. It is the grace of God that teaches us healthy fear, and the Spirit also relieves our fears! Fully grounded in God’s pardoning grace, we turn to Him for forgiveness and the strength to remain repentant. We learn to see repentance as a gift of the gospel under the New Covenant. Paul says it is the kindness of God that leads us to repent (Rom. 2:4). True repentance is never merely a “sense of regret.” Regretting our sin is only a part of the act of repentance. To truly be repentant, we must turn from our sinful behavior and toward God, without looking back; without going back to the old behavior. Paul describes this as once being in darkness, but now being in the light of the Lord (Eph. 5:8).

Prayer for Overcoming Sexual Strongholds

LORD JESUS, I ____________________, have realized that I am hopelessly enslaved to the sexual stronghold of ____________________, and that I am powerless to save myself. I acknowledge that YOU are the Son of God and you have already paid the debt for my sin. All I need to do is claim it personally. I realize that YOU died for me. You bore every single one of my sins, past, present, and future, when You hung upon the cross. I cannot be good enough to work my way into heaven, nor can I stand against the wiles of the devil under my own power. Come dwell in me, Jesus, through Your Holy Spirit; set me free from this sexual stronghold and allow me to live through Your resurrection onto a new life. Thank You, God, in advance that You will never leave me or forsake me, especially during times of temptation. Amen.

Concluding Remarks

As an industry, pornography has surpassed the bottled water business. Much of what we see today mirrors the out-of-control lifestyle and Hedonism of Rome. Nearly 70 percent of active pastors in the Christian church admit to watching pornography on a regular basis. It is impossible to curb this troublesome trend when the shepherds of the flock are similarly distracted. Viewing pornographic images of women or men for sexual gratification is a sin. As Christ said, merely looking upon another with such prurient interest is the same as having sex with them. In addition, regular viewing of pornographic images prevents Christians from being filled with or guided by the Holy Spirit. Worse, as I’ve learned, it causes the user of porn to believe a false reality, and leads to objectification of people as sex objects.

Whenever a Christian becomes embroiled in pornography, he or she starts being weighed down with guilt and regret. The Holy Spirit convicts believers when they’re acting outside the will of God. Habitual sin dulls our spiritual “ears,” making it harder to break free. This eventually becomes a stronghold. The only way to defeat strongholds is to recognize the sin, then tear it down through the Word of God and prayer. I struggled with this particular issue for decades. It seems to have gone hand-in-hand with substance abuse. It becomes difficult to see the forest for the trees, leading to daily practice of sin. I typically felt “dirty” and weak after indulging in pornography. I’d vow to never do it again, only to fall to the temptation over and over. I found it shocking to learn that my brain chemistry was being affected by habitual porn in the same manner drugs had rewired my brain. 

If you or a loved one is having difficulty staying away from pornography, it’s likely a stronghold has developed. It is just as hard (sometimes) to quit pornography as it is stopping the abuse of drugs or alcohol. The chemical “rewards” are far too great. It is possible to make a conscious decision early on to stay away, but once the habit has become an addiction it can require professional or spiritual guidance to quit. Please consider talking to your pastor or a trusted member of your congregation. If you are having trouble trusting yourself to stop visiting untoward websites, there are several apps or services that can help. I highly recommend Covenant Eyes. In any event, the first step (as with any addiction) is to admit powerlessness over the habit. There is power in the Name of Jesus to break any chain of addiction.

For those of you who do not struggle with this issue, or those who have broken free, please take up the mantle and help other believers in your church or everyday life to achieve victory. Both they and the Body of Christ will be made stronger if you do. God bless and remember: Say No to Satan!

Footnotes

(1) Terry Cu-unjieng, “Why 68% of Christian Men Watch Porn,” Conquer Series (n.d.), URL: https://conquerseries.com/why-68-percent-of-christian-men-watch-porn/

(2) Morgan Lee, “Here’s How 770 Pastors Describe Their Struggle With Porn,” Christianity Today (Jan. 26, 2016), URL: https://www.christianitytoday.com/news/2016/january/how-pastors-struggle-porn-phenomenon-josh-mcdowell-barna.html

(3) Steve Arterburn is the founder and chairman of New Life Ministries and host of the #1 nationally syndicated Christian counseling talk show New Life Live!

(4) David Kinnaman, “The Porn Phenomenon,” Barna Research (Fe. 5, 2016), URL: https://www.barna.com/the-porn-phenomenon/#.VqZoN_krIdU

(5) Donna Rice Hughes is a practicing Christian, author, speaker, and Executive Producer and host of the Emmy award–winning three-part TV series Internet Safety 101 on PBS.

(6) Hughes, “The Internet Pornography Pandemic,” in Christian Apologetics Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1 (Charlotte, NC: Southern Evangelical Seminary, 2014), 14.

(7) Hughes, Ibid.

(8) “Mind-Blowing Stats About the Porn Industry and Its Underage Consumers,” on Fight the New Drug (May 30, 2019), URL: https://fightthenewdrug.org/10-porn-stats-that-will-blow-your-mind/

(9) Ruth Moore, Praying God’s Word: Breaking Free from Spiritual Strongholds (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2000), 273.

(10) Moore, 3.

(11) John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed. J.T. McNeill, trans. F.L Battles (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960), III.iii.5.

COVID-19: Potential Implications for Individuals with Substance Use Disorders

From National Institute on Drug Abuse
March 24, 2020

nida-banner-science-of-abuse-and-addiction

As people across the U.S. and the rest of the world contend with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the research community should be alert to the possibility that it could hit some populations with substance use disorders (SUDs) particularly hard. Because it attacks the lungs, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 could be an especially serious threat to those who smoke tobacco or marijuana or who vape. People with opioid use disorder (OUD) and methamphetamine use disorder may also be vulnerable due to those drugs’ effects on respiratory and pulmonary health. Additionally, individuals with a substance use disorder are more likely to experience homelessness or incarceration than those in the general population, and these circumstances pose unique challenges regarding transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. All these possibilities should be a focus of active surveillance as we work to understand this emerging health threat.

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 is believed to have jumped species from other mammals (likely bats) to first infect humans in Wuhan, capital of China’s Hubei province, in late 2019. It attacks the respiratory tract and appears to have a higher fatality rate than seasonal influenza. The exact fatality rate is still unknown, since it depends on the number of undiagnosed and asymptomatic cases, and further analyses are needed to determine those figures. Thus far, deaths and serious illness from COVID-19 seem concentrated among those who are older and who have underlying health issues, such as diabetes, cancer, and respiratory conditions. It is therefore reasonable to be concerned that compromised lung function or lung disease related to smoking history, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), could put people at risk for serious complications of COVID-19.

Co-occurring conditions including COPD, cardiovascular disease, and other respiratory diseases have been found to worsen prognosis in patients with other coronaviruses that affect the respiratory system, such as those that cause SARS and MERS. According to a case series published in JAMA based on data from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), the case fatality rate (CFR) for COVID-19 was 6.3 percent for those with chronic respiratory disease, compared to a CFR of 2.3 percent overall. In China, 52.9 percent of men smoke, in contrast to just 2.4 percent of women; further analysis of the emerging COVID-19 data from China could help determine if this disparity is contributing to the higher mortality observed in men compared to women, as reported by China CDC. While data thus far are preliminary, they do highlight the need for further research to clarify the role of underlying illness and other factors in susceptibility to COVID-19 and its clinical course.

Vaping, like smoking, may also harm lung health. Whether it can lead to COPD is still unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that exposure to aerosols from e-cigarettes harms the cells of the lung and diminishes the ability to respond to infection. In one NIH-supported study, for instance, influenza virus-infected mice exposed to these aerosols had enhanced tissue damage and inflammation.

People who use opioids at high doses medically or who have Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) face separate challenges to their respiratory health. Since opioids act in the brainstem to slow breathing, their use not only puts the user at risk of life-threatening or fatal overdose, it may also cause a harmful decrease in oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia). Lack of oxygen can be especially damaging to the brain; while brain cells can withstand short periods of low oxygen, they can suffer damage when this state persists. Chronic respiratory disease is already known to increase overdose mortality risk among people taking opioids, and thus diminished lung capacity from COVID-19 could similarly endanger this population.

A history of methamphetamine use may also put people at risk. Methamphetamine constricts the blood vessels, which is one of the properties that contributes to pulmonary damage and pulmonary hypertension in people who use it. Clinicians should be prepared to monitor the possible adverse effects of methamphetamine use, the prevalence of which is increasing in our country, when treating those with COVID-19.

Other risks for people with substance use disorders include decreased access to health care, housing insecurity, and greater likelihood for incarceration. Limited access to health care places people with addiction at greater risk for many illnesses, but if hospitals and clinics are pushed to their capacity, it could be that people with addiction—who are already stigmatized and underserved by the healthcare system—will experience even greater barriers to treatment for COVID-19. Homelessness or incarceration can expose people to environments where they are in close contact with others who might also be at higher risk for infections. The prospect of self-quarantine and other public health measures may also disrupt access to syringe services, medications, and other support needed by people with OUD.

We know very little right now about COVID-19 and even less about its intersection with substance use disorders. But we can make educated guesses based on past experience that people with compromised health due to smoking or vaping and people with opioid, methamphetamine, cannabis, and other substance use disorders could find themselves at increased risk of COVID-19 and its more serious complications—for multiple physiological and social/environmental reasons. The research community should thus be alert to associations between COVID-19 case severity/mortality and substance use, smoking or vaping history, and smoking- or vaping-related lung disease. We must also ensure that patients with substance use disorders are not discriminated against if a rise in COVID-19 cases places added burden on our healthcare system.

As we strive to confront the major health challenges of opioid and other drug overdoses—and now the rising infections with COVID-19—NIDA encourages researchers to request supplements that will allow them to obtain data on the risks for COVID-19 in individuals experiencing substance use disorders.

Vulnerable Populations

The most vulnerable to Covid-19 among substance abuses is going to be the crack-smoking homeless. The homeless are vulnerable just by being homeless, but add to that the lung damage from smoking crack and the risk is compounded. As Dr. Volkow points out, tobacco and marijuana smoking are also more prevalent among those who are homeless. This is going to be an important area of research.

 

The Christian Worldview, Modern Culture, and Addiction

“The problem of leading a Christian life in a non-Christian society is now very present to us… And as for the Christian who is not conscious of his dilemma—and he is in the majority—he is becoming more and more de-Christianized by all sorts of unconscious pressure: paganism holds all the most valuable advertising space.” —T.S. Eliot

Written by Steven Barto, B.S., Psy.

Lift Up Your Hands

I’VE HEARD IT SAID that in days past Christianity had an influence on culture in America; today, however, culture is having an impact on Christianity. One of my mentors at church puts it this way: “There’s too much world in the church and not enough church in the world.” This symptom comes from the relegation of all things religious to the private world, and the banning of all public expression of one’s faith. Nancy Pearcey said, “Not only have we ‘lost the culture,’ but we continue losing even our own children. It’s a familiar but tragic story that devout young people, raised in Christian homes, head off to college and abandon their faith.” (1) How does this happen? Largely because we’re sending our children off to secular education without helping them develop a Christian worldview. They can’t keep what they don’t understand.

Trevor Hart believes Christian theology must be a matter of activity, not just a subject to be studied. Today,  the hallmark of intellectual inquiry in everyday living appeals exclusively to reason and empirically established evidence as the only building block for truth. He said, “This account of things, which is widely subscribed to within our culture, can be traced back some three and a half centuries to the origins of the so-called European Enlightenment.” (2) Hart said one particular manifestation of this factor is the chasm between public and private spheres. Certainly, this view has greatly contributed to Christianity’s ineffective influence in culture. The “public” sector Hart refers to is the realm of universally-owned or agreed knowledge. If something is “public” truth, then it must be something which everyone can know to be true—a truth available to observation or self-evident to human reasoning.

Public and Private Venues

Today, we’re told to the “private” realm belong all statements or propositions which (for whatever reason) do not permit public scrutiny. Hart wrote, “The private sphere is the sphere of values, matters of opinion and beliefs; anything, in fact, the truth or falsity of which cannot in principle be demonstrated on publicly agreed terms.” (3) This phenomenon leads to comments like That’s your opinion and you’re entitled to hold it; but unless you prove it to be true I am compelled to reject it. Admittedly, the deck is stacked against faith and religion and in favor of science and “proven fact.” Hart believes the “passport” for bringing faith into the public realm is “justification by reason.” Christian faith is generally considered by our society to belong to the category of unproven and unprovable. To speak of such private beliefs in public is simply not condoned. Although faith is the usual motivation for theology, those who advocate for investigation solely on empirical evidence believe faith must remain on the sidelines, giving way to the pursuit of truth based upon reason alone.

Hart believes absolutism is born of arrogance. I concur. Many individuals today shout down any explicit expression of faith in public. It is their conclusion that the truth of the Christian story is not, nor will it ever be, demonstrable. Of course, another element of this is the opinion that truth is never something absolute or universal, but always relative to a particular context—cultural, historical, linguistic, religious, or whatever. We call this conclusion moral relativism. Relativism refers to an ethical system in which right and wrong are not absolute and unchanging but relative to one’s culture (cultural relativism) or one’s own personal preferences (moral subjectivism). Of course we see both forms widely embraced in today’s society. These concepts are directly related to the multiculturalism and pluralism rampant in Western civilization.

Worldview with Earth

How we experience and define the world and our place in it is called our worldview. Wilhelm Dilthey said, “The basic role of a worldview is to present the relationship of the human mind to the riddle of the world and life.” (4) Worldviews vary greatly, but they typically share some common elements: the certainty of death; cruelty of the natural process; general transitoriness. Accordingly, a worldview begins as a cosmic concept and then, through a complex interrelation between us and our world, develops into a more sophisticated and detailed sense of who we are and what is the nature of that which surrounds us. Coupled with a growing sense of values, a highest order of our practical behavior (comprehensive plan of life, highest good, highest norms of action, and shaping of our personal life) takes hold of and defines our thought and experience.

We are speaking of a clash of worldviews. Will Durant said, “From barbarism to civilization requires a century; from civilization to barbarism needs but a day.”

A Christian Perspective

Herman Dooyeweerd believes theoretical thought does not necessarily lie at the base of one’s worldview. More fundamental than any worldview delineated by religious faith is the orientation of one’s heart. Referring to Dooyeweerd, James Sire wrote, “All human endeavor stems not from worldview, but from the spiritual commitments of the heart.” (5) Sire believes there are only two basic commitments in Christianity, leading to two basic conditions of life: “man converted to God” and “man averted from God.” C.S. Lewis treated Christian ideas with clarity and creativity, painstakingly dissecting their importance and relation to overall philosophy and individual challenge. Lewis held the belief that we are all philosophers to some extent. It was his goal to reach philosophia perennis—ultimate and permanently true philosophy.

To this end, Lewis posited that a Christian worldview must be a hybrid of philosophy and theology. He thought this would be highly advantageous because both disciplines generate knowledge in their own distinctive ways. Philosophy employs reason, building on commonly available information, to decide the most fundamental queries about life and the world. Theology draws from Scripture, ecclesiastics, established doctrine, and the historical experiences of the community of believers to articulate knowledge about God in a systematic manner. Lewis believed the truths established by philosophy and theology were compatible. I see this as another application of “all truth is God’s truth.”

Christian apologist James Orr (1844-1913) set out to provide a complete, coherent, rationally defensible exposition of Christianity that would stand up to the intellectual and cultural challenges of his day.  Orr supported the belief that the Christian faith is a christocentric, self-authenticating system of biblical truth characterized by inner integrity, rational coherence, empirical verisimilitude, and existential power. Sire says, “Worldviews have their source deep in the constitution of human nature and involve both the intellect and the actions we perform” (italics mine). (6) Martin Luther said, “It is through living, indeed through dying and being damned, that one becomes a theologian, not through understanding, reading, or speculation.” (7) We must live our theology, without which it is merely a collection of data.

Abraham Kuyper (1837-1920) believed every worldview has a single conception from which the whole worldview flows. He supported the need for all thought to proceed from a single principle: what he called a fixed point of departure. Herman Dooyeweerd (1894-1977) believed the religious or faith orientation of the heart was more fundamental than any worldview that can be delineated by ideas and propositions. He said, “Theory and practice are a product of the will, not the intellect; of the heart, not the head.” (8) Accordingly, he believed worldviews are pretheoretical commitments that are in direct contact not so much with the mind as the heart—involving experience; the living of life. Soren Kierkegaard said Christian conversion necessarily leads to the formation of a new “life-view.” Paul wrote, “Do not be conformed to this world but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that you may prove what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect” (Rom. 12:2, NRSV) (italics mine).

Ronald Nash provides a very concise description of worldview: “In its simplest terms, a worldview is a set of beliefs about the most important issues in life… [It] is a conceptual scheme by which we consciously or unconsciously place or fit everything we believe and by which we interpret and judge reality.” (9) I’d like to present a longer comment from Nash before addressing what I hope to be a unique look at a “negative” or “bad” worldview; one I held while in active addiction. Nash wrote:

A worldview may well be defined as one’s comprehensive framework of basic beliefs about things, but our talk (confessed beliefs or cognitive claims) is one thing, and our walk (operational beliefs) is another and even more important thing. A lived worldview defines one’s basic convictions; it defines what one is ready to live and die for.

Worldview of an Addict

Hung Over

Worldview is how a person views the world. A person’s worldview consists of the values and ideals—the fundamental belief system—that determine his attitudes, beliefs and, ultimately, his behavior. Typically, this includes his view of issues such as the nature of God, man, the meaning of life, nature, death, and right and wrong. It is not difficult to imagine how the worldview of an addict might be skewed away from what most people consider proper attitude, belief, and behavior. We begin developing our worldview as young children, first through interactions within our family, then in social settings such as school and church, and from our companions and life experiences. This is, at least in part, the concept of nature versus nurture.

Here are the basic questions we must answer to determine our worldview, and my responses while in active addiction:

  • Is there a god and what is he like?  Maybe. I think so, but I’m not sure. Besides, who cares if there is? He doesn’t love me or want me. I might not be “God” but I want the job. I want to be in charge of me!
  • What is the nature and origin of the universe? Who knows? Who cares? I doubt something came from nothing, but I’m not interested in finding out.
  • What is the nature and origin of man? I don’t think I came from an ape, but I sure act like one! I’m smart, so I should be able to read about this issue and make up my own mind. Some day. Not today.
  • What happens to man after death? I think the Bible has it right. There is a place for the “good” people and the “bad” people. I’ve always been a piece of crap who cannot love or respect others. Instead, I deceive and manipulate them. There probably is a Hell and I’m headed there. My “sins” are too great. Jesus saved everyone but me! I cannot be redeemed so might as well “live it up,” taking what I want.
  • Where does knowledge come from? Good question! I have an IQ of 127 but it does me absolutely no good. My father said, “If you’re so smart, why are you so dumb?” My “smarts” came from me reading, learning, doing. I make my own rules and definitions.
  • What is the basis of ethics and morality? Ethics is whatever I say it is. Morality? No one is truly moral. It’s all “relative” to the person or circumstance. If cannibalism is okay, then I am free to do whatever I deem fit for the situation. It’s “dog eat dog.” It’s all about getting what you want at any cost. And I love the idea of paybacks!
  • What is the meaning of human history? Maybe Darwin was right! Life seems to be every man for himself. I need to adapt. Be a chameleon. Be whatever it takes to get what I want and need. Our entire history has been about survival of the fittest, even from a social perspective.

What It’s Like Now

God has given me a great gift. It starts with life itself. There are numerous situations which, by odds, should have ended in my death. I overdosed on an opiate one afternoon and needed emergency care. I do not remember the event—going unresponsive; the neighbor coming over to try reviving me; the ambulance ride to the trauma center; yelling horrible obscenities at my mother and begging to go home; pulling my IV out, blood everywhere; being transferred to my hospital room. I became aware of my surroundings the next morning when I woke up in a hospital bed. I’ve driven while under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol countless times but never crashed, killed myself, killed others, or ended up in a wheelchair. I’ve been homeless. I’ve put myself in dangerous circumstances just to score drugs. I continued drinking a fifth of vodka a day despite ulcers, elevated liver enzymes, and pancreatitis. I’ve operated a vehicle at speeds in excess of 100 miles-per-hour. Being a “garbage head,” I snorted, swallowed, smoked, and huffed nearly anything that would “do the trick.”

I went from hating myself for 59 years to finally loving myself. Today, I have forgiven myself for the harmful and twisted way I lived for over 40 years, no longer regretting my past or pretending it never happened; instead, I see it now as an asset for helping others. I am motivated today to teach to others the lessons I had to learn the hard way. Loving myself has made it possible to love others. It has also shown me what true unconditional love looks like (1 Cor. 13). I have forgiven all those (whether real or imagined) who treated me badly, no longer using it as an excuse to behave badly. I understand original sin and fully comprehend the “struggle” Paul wrote about in Romans 7. I have forgiven others for their unforgiving attitude toward me, seeing me through their eyes.

I have finally come to accept my powerlessness over drugs and alcohol, as well as pornography, emotional eating, and spending money to “feel good.” Paul put powerlessness into perspective:

I do not understand my own actions. For I do not do what I want, but I do the very thing I hate. Now if I do what I do not want, I agree that the law is good. So then it is no longer I that do it, but sin which dwells within me. For I know that nothing good dwells within me, that is, in my flesh. I can will what is right, but I cannot do it. For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I do. Now if I do what I do not want, it is no longer I that do it, but sin which dwells within me… Wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death? Thanks be to God through Jesus Christ our Lord! So then, I of myself serve the law of God with my mind, but with my flesh I serve the law of sin (Rom. 7:15-20, 24-25).

I used to have a very chaotic and unsettled lifestyle. My “default mode” or my “center” was anxiety. I had no peace; no quite moments. I couldn’t sit still. My mind wandered every time I read a book, and I was prone to daydreaming during a movie. My nights were filled with restless worrying and insomnia. As my health and well being began to suffer, I was wracked with depression, anxiety, and chronic physical pain. My degenerative disc disease made it harder to stay away from opiates and cannabis. The great lie I told myself is that I used oxy and weed to escape pain and anxiety. I was not an addict. I needed drugs. I was so very wrong. Despite attending my first 12-step meeting in 2001, I am only sober from booze since 2008 and free of cannabis and opiates for ten months.

Yes, I am powerless. Over many things. But that’s okay. I don’t need to overcome anything by myself. John wrote, “For whatever is born of God overcomes the world; and this is the victory that overcomes the world, our faith. Who is it that overcomes the world but he who believes that Jesus is the Son of God” (1 John 5:4-5). I spent decades doing whatever I wanted. When circumstances got bad, I tried to fix things by myself. Quitting is actually easy for me; the hard part is staying quit! No worries. I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me (Phil. 4:13). And so can you. When we admit our faults, confess them to one another and to God, and take the next right step to move away from deliberate sin, we exponentially increase the odds we will keep on moving and growing.

Footnotes

(1) Nancy Pearsey, Total Truth: Liberating Christianity from Its Cultural Captivity (Wheaton, LI: Crossway Publishing, 2005), 19.

(2) Trevor Hart, Faith Thinking: The Dynamics of Christian Theology (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 1995), 12.

(3) Hart, 13.

(4) Wilhelm Dilthey, Gesammelte Schriften, in Introduction to the Human Sciences: An Attempt to Lay a Foundation for the Study of Society and History, (Detroit, IL: Wayne State University Press, 1988), 291.

(5) James Sire, Naming the Elephant: Worldview as a Concept, 2nd ed. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2015), 35.

(6) Sire, 33.

(7) Martin Luther, Operations in Psalmos, quoted by Kelly M. Kapic in A Little Book for New Theologians (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2012), 41.

(8) In Naugle, Worldview, 27.

(9) Ronald Nash, Worldviews in Conflict (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1922), 12.

What About This Man Called Job?

Written by Steven Barto, B.S., Psy.

CURSE GOD AND DIE. Withhold your praise and adoration, for He has assailed you without reason. You did nothing wrong. Are you not righteous? Do you not seek His face daily? Have you not repented, turning from your wicked ways? Did you lie today? No! Did you steal from others today? No! Did you willfully or callously sin today? No! Have you put God before all things today? Well, probably. Did you willingly accept whatever He put before you today without complaint? Yeah, I guess. Did you judge anyone today? Now wait a minute! That guy was wrong. Completely out of line! So that would be a yes, then? You don’t have to answer. Have you ever cursed the day you were born, shaking your fist at God, and asking Him to end your life of nonstop despair and misery? Did you lose sight of the horizon, deciding the darkness of the moment will never end? Never mind. I withdraw the question.

Spiritual-darkness-e1524259521247

Darkness is a terrible foe. Devoid of all light, it keeps us from seeing even a tiny speck of hope. Early in my many attempts to break free from the bondage of active addiction, my uncle said, “Your problem is you can’t see the horizon.” Darkness, by its very nature, blinds us to our circumstance. Close your eyes for a moment and try to remember exactly where everything is in the room where you’re sitting as you read this. Without peeking, make a mental picture of every inch you can recall. Angles, colors, position of furniture, which magazines lay on the cocktail table unread, books you forgot to put away last night, the location of your TV remote, where you placed your box of tissues. Then open your eyes and see how well you did. This exercise speaks of two things: it is impossible to see without light; and, we are often unaware of our surroundings or predicament.

The Man

Job was a man who lived in Uz. He was honest inside and out, a man of his word, who was totally devoted to God and hated evil with a passion. He had seven sons and three daughters. He was also very wealthy—seven thousand head of sheep, three thousand camels, five hundred teams of oxen, five hundred donkeys, and a huge staff of servants—the most influential man in all the East (Job 1:1-3, MSG).

Job Before God

We are given a glimpse of Job’s character, which is presented in the simple and direct style of a patriarchal narrative. Although not an Israelite, Job is a worshiper of the one true God. Job is a blameless and upright man—e.g., he is beyond reproach but not sinless and perfect. Job acts as a true patriarch of his family, offering daily sacrifices to God on behalf of each of his children. The Book of Job was likely written by Job, and is one of the more ancient books in existence. The fortitude and patience of Job, though not a small thing, gave way in his severe troubles. However, his faith remained focused on the  coming of his Redeemer, giving him steadfastness and constancy. He did not curse or blame God for the troubles that stalked him.

Matthew Henry wrote, “Job was prosperous, and yet pious.” (1) We can see from his routine sacrifices on behalf of himself and his family that he understood the sinful state of man and the need for dependence on God’s mercy. Although his afflictions began at the hand of Satan, the LORD gave permission for Job’s persecution for wise and holy purposes. Henry said, “There is an evil spirit, the enemy of God, and of all righteousness, who is continually seeking to distress, to lead astray, and, if possible, to destroy those who love God.” (2) When Satan appeared in the presence of God to accuse Job, the LORD asked, “Whence have you come?” Satan answered Him, saying, “From going to and fro on the earth, and from walking up and down on it” (Job 1:7, NRSV). We know the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking some one to devour (1 Pet. 5:8), and this is precisely what he was doing that day in Uz.

The story of Job provides us with a unique opportunity to study man’s slow burn when besieged with persistent trials and tribulations. Satan asked permission from God to oppress Job in order to prove Job’s faith and righteousness was contingent upon his wealth and prosperity. Satan said, “But put forth thy hand now, and touch all that he has, and he will curse thee to thy face” (1:11). Putting aside the fact that God knew exactly how Job would respond, He permitted the devil to attack Job (1:12). In essence, God said to Satan, “We’ll see! Go ahead, do want you want with all that he has.” It’s important to note that God protected Job’s life, telling Satan to not lay a hand on him.

Satan’s attack came on all at once. Job was having a meal when a servant came to tell him, “The oxen were plowing and the asses feeding beside them; and the Sabe’ans fell upon them and took them, and slew the servants with the edge of the sword; and I alone have escaped to tell you” (1:14-15). Before this man could finish presenting Job with the bad news, another servant burst in and told him lightning struck his flock of sheep, killing every head and all servants except him (1:16). A third man told Job the Sabe’ans had returned and took all his camels and killed every servant but him. Another servant arrived, telling Job his children were killed when a strong wind caused the house to fall on them as they ate supper. In each instance, the devil allowed a servant to witness these calamities and survive to inform Job.

It was not until several of Job’s friends arrived that he seems to have noticed how far he’d fallen during this onslaught. When they arrived, they barely recognized Job. Crying out in lament, they ripped their robes, dumped ashes on their heads as a sign of their grief, and sat with Job on the ground for seven days. No one spoke. It is likely that during this week of silence Satan continued to assault Job’s beliefs by planting doubt in his mind. Henry wrote, “These inward trials show the reason of the change that took place in Job’s conduct, from entire submission to God’s will, to the impatience which appears here and in other parts of the book.” (3)

Job cried out:

Obliterate the day I was born. Blank out the night I was conceived! Let it be a black hole in space. May God forget it ever happened. Erase it from the books! May the day of my birth be buried in deep darkness, swallowed by the night. And the night of my conception—the devil take it! Rip the date off the calendar, delete it from the almanac. Oh, turn that night into pure nothingness—no sounds of pleasure from that night, ever! Why didn’t I die at birth, my first breath out of the womb my last? Why were there arms to rock me, and breasts for me to drink from (Job 3:3-7, 11-12, MSG)?

Eliphaz, one of the friends, says that although Job often comforted other people, he now demonstrated that he never actually knew their pain. Eliphaz believed Job’s pain must be due to some sin he committed and he told Job to seek God’s favor. Bildad and Zophar agreed that Job must have performed evil to provoke God’s justice and argued that he should attempt to manifest more innocent behavior. Bildad supposed that Job’s children brought their deaths upon themselves. Even worse, Zophar suggested that whatever wrongdoing Job has done he likely deserved more suffering than what he had experienced.

Although Job cursed the day he was born, he did not curse God. I imagine he was later ashamed of these utterances. As I read these words this morning, I was reminded of my past and the countless times I shouted at God, cursing Him for not helping me, and wishing I had never been born.  On more than one occasion I shook my fist at heaven and said to God, “Either cure me or kill me!” The longer I toiled under mental illness and addiction, the more I was convinced my life was meaningless. Each time I would stop using drugs and alcohol and head back to treatment, I was highly motivated. I wanted to learn from my mistakes. During these moments, I felt blessed to be alive, and I was grateful that I could use my horrific past to help counsel others. Then it would start over again, worse than the last time.

Job had lost his way and was without any prospect of reprise or hope of better days. Certainly, we all contemplate our misery when in the thick of it, and for those whose trials appear to have no end there seems to be no reason to go on. According to the American Psychological Association, the suicide rate in America rose 33 percent from 1999 to 2017. Suicide ranks as the fourth leading cause of death for people ages 35 to 54, and the second for ages 10 through 34. It remains the 10th leading cause of death overall. (4) Pinpointing the reasons that suicide rates rise or fall is challenging in part because the causes of suicide are complex. During those when moments I considered suicide, I’d lost all hope that things in my life would ever change. I was tired of letting people down. I became convinced I was a hopeless, helpless hypocrite.

His Accuser

Satan retorted, “So do you think Job does all that out of the sheer goodness of his heart? Why, no one ever had it so good! You pamper him like a pet, make sure nothing bad ever happens to him or his family or his possessions, bless everything he does—he can’t lose! But what do you think would happen if you reached down and took away everything that is his? He’d curse you right to your face, that’s what” (Job 1:9-10, MSG).

Satan the Accusing Serpent

We learn a great deal about Satan from his conversation with God about Job (1:6-12). He is accountable to God. His power over Job was limited. All angelic beings, good and evil, are compelled to appear before God. An evangelist friend of mine puts it this way: Satan appears in the “Court of God” daily, accusing us of wrongdoing, asking God to judge and punish us accordingly. God knew Job would eventually persevere through faith. Satan, of course, is not able to see the future. Moreover, although he wages spiritual battle against us through our thoughts, he cannot read our minds or know what we will do. If he could, he would have known his temptation of Job was futile. What, then, was the reason for his attack on Job? First, it shows us Satan is alive and well on earth, roaming about seeking those whom he can destroy. Second, no matter the circumstances—or our initial doubt and frustration—we can overcome the wiles of the devil through the Word of God and prayer.

Why was Satan in God’s presence along with all the angels at the beginning of this story? As an angel, Satan is obligated to give an account for his actions in the world. He told God he had been going to and fro on the earth, walking up and down on it. Notice the implication: Satan strutting about, boasting of his power as ruler of the earth, tempting and dominating whomever he wants. He attacked Job’s motives, saying that Job was blameless and had integrity only because he had no reason to turn against God. Satan wished to prove that Job worshiped God because God had given him so much, not because he truly loved and revered God. Truly, many Christians are “fair weather” believers, following God only when everything is going well, or seeking whatever they can get. Such superficial faith often falls on its face when confronted with adversity—especially if the believer perceives his or her hardship as unfair or undeserved.

Satan essentially slanders Job before the Court of God. Of course, Christians should dread nothing more than living as hypocrites. This was my fault for many years. When my brother said, “I hate you, and you are nothing but a hypocrite,” I was devastated. Not angry; just sad that he was right. When in active addiction, I would do or say whatever it took to get me out of hot water. To convince others I was fine. I wanted to be left alone. This was not Job’s problem. He genuinely meant what he said. There is nothing worse than being called out as a hypocrite when it is not true!

The devil undertook to expose Job as a hypocrite by afflicting him; and Job’s friends concluded he was a hypocrite because he showed marked impatience during his afflictions. Job’s friend Eliphaz says, “Think now, who that was innocent ever perished? Or where were the upright cut off? As I have seen, those who plow iniquity and sow trouble reap the same” (Job 4:7-8). In other words, Job, what did you do to bring this calamity down upon you and your family?

His God

As for me, I would seek God, and to God would I commit my cause; who does great things and unsearchable, marvelous things without number: he gives rain upon the earth and sends waters upon the fields; he sets on high those who are lowly, and those who mourn are lifted to safety (Job 5:8-11).

Hands To Heaven

Regardless of Job’s self-righteous spirit, the LORD watched over him with the affection of a wise and loving father. God is fully aware of every attempt by Satan to bring suffering and difficulty upon us. God might allow us to suffer for a season, but there is always a reason. The apostle Paul wrote, “We know that in everything God works for good with those who love him, who are called according to his purpose” (Rom. 8:28, NRSV). God suffered Job to be tried, as he suffered Peter to be sifted. Jesus and his twelve had gathered in the upper room for a Passover dinner. In Luke 22:21 Jesus said, “But behold the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table.” This prompted much murmuring: Who could it be? Not, I, I would never do such a thing! The twelve argued about who among them loved Jesus more.

Jesus said to Peter, “Simon, Simon, behold, Satan demanded to have you, that he might sift you like wheat, but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail; and when you have turned again, strengthen your brethren” (22:31-32) (italics mine). Let’s not miss the amazing prophetic lesson this represents. Only hours after being told that he would be a ruler in Christ’s kingdom, Peter is going to crash. From the heights of joyful anticipation and confidence to the pit of failure and bitter weeping in one night. We know Peter denied Christ three times just before dawn, before the rooster crowed twice, as Jesus had predicted. It is clear from the scene in The Passion of the Christ that Peter was mortified, if no outright frightened for his salvation.

Despite this egregious offense, Peter is the first to preach the gospel in the power of the Holy Spirit under the New Covenant. He proclaims  a resurrected Jesus to the Jews, converting many to the gospel. He is later directed by God to bring the gospel to non-Jews as well. Despite Peter’s denial of Christ, Jesus made him the rock upon which He would build the Body of Christ. His ministry dovetailed nicely with Paul’s mission to the Gentiles. When Jesus said and when you have turned again, strengthen your brethren, he was speaking of the good that would come from Peter’s repentance.

Ultimately, God is in control. Today’s New Atheists enjoy charging God with the heartless and purposeless infliction of violence and despair on undeserving people. It’s the typical argument, If God is a God of love, why does He permit evil in His creation? Regarding Job, it is extremely important to notice that not once did Job blame God or curse Him for the suffering being poured out on him and his family. I had to re-read the Book of Job to be certain of this, but it’s true. Job cursed his own life, even the day he was born. In fact he said, “Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked shall I return; the LORD gave, and the LORD has taken away; blessed be the name of the LORD” (1:21). It seems Job was more willing to assume blame for what was happening to him than blame his beloved LORD.

Although Job essentially said If God is not responsible, who is? he expressed hatred for his life and not for God. He remarked, “[H]ow can a man be just before God? If one wished to contend with him, one could not answer him once in a thousand times. He is wise in heart, and mighty in strength—who has hardened himself against him, and succeeded?” (9:2b-4). He continued: “How then can I answer him, choosing my words with him? Though I am innocent, I cannot answer him; I must appeal for mercy to my accuser” (9:14-15). Henry provides a wonderful analysis of this rant. He writes, “Job is still righteous in his own eyes, and this answer, though it sets forth the power of God, implies that the question between the afflicted and the Lord of providence is a question of might, and not of right.” Henry notes, “[W]e begin to discover the evil fruits of pride and of a self-righteous spirit.” (5) Job did not believe he was without sin; reflecting on God’s goodness and justice, he tried to determine what had brought God’s disfavor upon him. Rather than blame God for his troubles, he wracked his brain to determine why he’d been singled out.

Not once did Job say to God, Why are you doing this to me? Nor did he curse God or recant his faith. Instead, he admonished his so-called friends and decided to take his case directly to God. It is important to note that Job says, “I’ll take whatever I have coming to me” (13:13). He asks God to remove his afflictions (The terror is too much for me!), but he does not accuse God of improper treatment. Remaining humble, he asks, “How many are my iniquities and my sins? Make me know my transgression and my sin” (13:23). Maybe Job was beginning to see how his pride and complacency brought him to this moment in his life. Eliphaz had essentially accused him of lacking empathy. Perhaps additionally he recognized a sense of entitlement that he thought should prevent such attacks as he was presently facing.

Concluding Remarks

The story of Job is one of the finest examples we have of Romans 8:28. Persecution is the yardstick by which our sincerity as Christians is measured—it tends to separate the true believer from the hypocrite. Unsound hearts pretend in prosperity, but fall away during tribulation (Matthew 13:20-21). Because of their immaturity, imposters cannot sail in stormy weather.  God often uses adversity to publicly gauge the genuineness of a man’s faith. As I noted earlier, suffering times are often sifting times. Job said, “When I am tried I shall come forth as gold” (Job 23:10). He had the type of faith that can’t be destroyed by fire. A Christian who is truly born of God, no matter what he loses, will hold fast his integrity (Job 2:3).

 Job was unsure about why he was being attacked, but he chose to keep seeking God. Aware that he had not intentionally or maliciously sinned, he ignored the chastisement of his friends. He had confidence in the goodness of both his cause and of his God; and cheerfully committed his cause to Him.  It is during times of trouble that fervent prayer is most important. God knows us better than we can ever know ourselves. This is why we can be sure that if we love God every detail in our lives is worked into something good. When we grow weary, God’s Spirit is right alongside helping us through.

Job presents his “closing arguments” in 31:1-40. Ultimately, he clears himself of the charge of hypocrisy:

Oh, that I had one to hear me! (Here is my signature! let the Almighty answer me!) Oh, that I had the indictment written by my adversary! Surely I would carry it on my shoulder; I would bind it on me as a crown; I would give him an account of all my steps; like a prince I would approach him. If my land has cried out against me, and its furrows have wept together; if I have eaten its yield without payment, and caused the death of its owners; let thorns grow instead of wheat, and foul weeds instead of barley (31:35-40a).

It is only through humility and reverence that we can hope to learn from our errors, and turn trials and hardship into victory. Even though Satan must seek permission to challenge our faith, we are not expected to stand against his wiles alone. It is through the Name of Jesus that we can defeat the enemy, grown in stature, and glorify God through or every word and deed.

Footnotes

(1) Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary on the Whole Bible (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1997), 415.

(2) Henry, 415.

(3) Henry, 418.

(4) Kirsten Weir, “Worrying Trends in U.S. Suicide Rates,” American Psychological Association, Vol. 50, No. 3 (March 2019), URL: https://www.apa.org/monitor/2019/03/trends-suicide

(5) Henry, 425.